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The process of cleansing a substance or object to remove hazardous material including infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals is decontamination. The purpose of this process is to prevent the spread of microorganism and other noxious contaminants which has the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment. The fields in which decontamination is applied is medical environments that include veterinary science, surgery and dentistry.

Aside from the medical field also in food preparation, environmental science and forensic science are the areas where decontamination is applied. The process of decontamination involves three methods so as to eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement. The three levels include disinfection, sterilization and sanitization.

Anti -microbial agents that are applied to the surface of nonliving objects in order to destroy microorganisms that are present in living things are known as disinfectants. The process of disinfection doesn’t necessarily kill all the microorganisms especially resistant bacterial spores but is effective to others. The process of disinfection also is less effective than sterilization which is an extreme physical chemical process that kill all types of microorganisms. The disinfection process works by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.

Disinfectants are of various types which include; oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Inorganic compounds are types of disinfectants which have sub categories and they include; chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine.Quaternary compounds are a large group of related compounds in which some have concentrated formulations.A large group of related compounds which have concentrated formulations are quaternary ammonium compounds. Inorganic compounds such as chlorine are a group of aqueous solution that include chlorine, hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite.

Physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification are the methods of decontamination. The process involving removal of biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases and undesirable chemicals from water is water purification. Usually drinking water is disinfected for the purpose of human consumption and water purification aids in these.

The process of water purification ensures the following applications are fulfilled and they include medical, pharmacological, industrial and chemical. The process of water purification involves three methods which are chemical, physical and chemical.

Not only does water purification reduce the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter but also it reduce the concentration of particulate matter such as algae, fungi, suspended particles and bacteria. Sterilization is a method and level of decontamination which refers to any process that removes or eliminates, deactivates or kills all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media. In order to achieve sterilization then heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure are used.

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